One of the most controversial topics in the US and the West more broadly that is a source of division and confusion among Muslims every year is the permissibility or prohibition of Muslims congratulating non-Muslims with regards to their holidays and partaking in those celebrations. There is significant pressure on Muslims living in the US to integrate into the melting pot culture of America. This pressure comes both from non-Muslims as well as Muslims. On the issue of celebrating non-Muslim holidays, like Halloween, Christmas, Valentine’s Day, St. Patrick’s Day, etc., converts/reverts as well as second and third generation Muslims face the most pressure.
Most contemporary scholars maintain the traditional consensus view of absolute prohibition for such greetings and celebrations. They go as far as saying that if a Muslim were to be approached by a non-Muslim congratulating them on one of their festivals that it is prohibited for them to return the greeting and in doing so may lead one to commit a sin and even an act of kufr (disbelief).
However, a small group of contemporary scholars has broken from this consensus and opined that it is absolutely permissible for Muslims, not only to congratulate non-Muslims on their holidays but also to partake in them if they so desire. In fact, some have gone as far as to say that it is an obligation to partake in them if they are converts/reverts and their families are still non-Muslims. This disagreement causes lay Muslims to have confusions and leads them to doubt the unity of Islam and its laws. It also causes many of them to doubt the spirit of Islam and the message it came with. Last but not least, it leads some to a faith-crisis that affects their sense of identity as Muslims.
A big question is: What are the short-term and long-term ramifications of the fatawa of permissibility on Muslims living as religious minorities in the West?
The reality is, scholars of Islam did not differ on the prohibition of congratulating non-Muslims on their festivals at all in their fatawa up until the end of the 20th Century. It is my opinion that it was only after the events of 9/11 that contemporary scholars started to give unprecedented fatawa on this issue. I would like to explore the reasons behind this shift.
In doing so, I will bring into light most of the major fatawa associated with this topic and will determine, through a critical analyses, whether ijma‘ (consensus of scholars) was legitimately broken due to the sudden outpouring of fatawa after the events of 9/11. Additionally, I conducted a survey of 100 Muslims in the US and asked them what are the effects and ramifications of Muslims celebrating and/or partaking in the religious festivals of non-Muslims. Survey participants were Muslims from across varied backgrounds, schools of thought, with differing views on the permissibility or prohibition of congratulating non-Muslims on their festivals.
Fatawa of Permissibility
There are several prominent scholars and Islamic personalities who issued a fatwa that it is permissible for the Muslims living in the US, and the West in general, to congratulate and/or partake in the religious festivals of the inhabitants of the country even if they may be non-Muslims. Among them are Yusuf al-Qaradawi, Abdullah bin Bayyah/Hamza Yusuf, and Suhaib Webb. For our purpose here, I will limit this paper to the opinions of these scholars and personalities for the following reasons; a) in one way or another, these individuals have a wide influence on Muslims in the US, b) their opinions are sufficient for the reader to get an overall picture of the opinion of permissibility, and c) to avoid redundancy since the opinions of other scholars fall under the general fatwa of permissibility.
Al-Qaradawi1 was asked a question on whether or not it is permissible for a person to congratulate the non-Muslims on their festivals, especially Christmas, and to exchange gifts with them because he feels that it is rude not to do so. In replying to the question, al-Qaradawi states that it is permissible based on the following principles:
- Allah has ordered the Muslims to deal justly with the non-Muslims and to be kind to them based on the verse of the Quran (al-Mumtahinah: 8) that states, “Allah does not forbid you to deal justly (al-birr) and kindly with those who fought not against you on account of religion and did not drive you out of your homes. Verily, Allah loves those who deal with equity.”
- The Prophet ordered Asma’ bint Abi Bakr, when her polytheist mother came and visited her, by saying: “Keep good relations with your mother”. He states that if this is the (good) stance we must have with the polytheists, then the stance towards the People of the Book is even more lenient.
- Allah has allowed for Muslims to eat from the meat of the People of the Book and marry their women (al-Ma’idah: 5). Furthermore, he cites the verse of the Quran (al-Rum: 21) in which Allah says that He has put affection and mercy between the spouses so we can live in peace. He argues by asking, how is it possible for a man to live in harmony, peace, and love with a woman from the People of the Book and not congratulate her or her family on their holidays?
- The validity of congratulating non-Muslims on their holidays is emphasized in the Quran especially in the case when they also congratulate Muslims on Islamic holidays. He cites the verse of the Quran that states we must return the greeting of those that greet us (al-Nisa’: 86). He argues that it is from the characteristics of a Muslim that he should not be rude and return good with good.
- The Prophet ﷺ accepted gifts from non-Muslims, including the Christian priest of Egypt, and based on that, it is permissible for Muslims to exchange gifts with them on the condition that they do not contain items which are forbidden for Muslims such as pork and alcohol.
Refutation of al-Qaradawi
First: Allah has ordered Muslims to deal justly with non-Muslims and to be kind to them based on the verse in the Quran:
“Allah does not forbid you to deal justly and kindly with those who fought not against you on account of religion and did not drive you out of your homes. Verily, Allah loves those who deal with equity.” (al-Mumtahina: 8)
By citing this verse, al-Qaradawi claims that it is permitted to congratulate non-Muslims on their holidays because this constitutes being kind and just to them. However, to draw this conclusion from this verse is a mistake because being kind and just to others is not permissible if it involves disobedience to Allah. As the Prophet ﷺ said: “There is no obedience to any human being if it involves sin; obedience is only in that which is right and proper.”2 In this case, there is clear disobedience to Allah when non-Muslims commit acts of shirk and sin and the Muslim congratulates them on those days in which those acts are committed.
Second: The Prophet ﷺ ordered Asma’ bint Abi Bakr, when her polytheist mother came and visited her, by saying: “Keep good relations with your mother.”3 Again, this is a hadith that is `amm (general) and mutlaq (absolute), thus, it says nothing about holidays. In addition, it is an application of “behave with them in this world kindly.” To apply this verse to mean that it is permissible to congratulate and/or partake in non-Muslim holidays would be contradictory to other Islamic texts, such as when Allah ordered us not to listen to our parents if they order us to commit acts of shirk or other sins:
“But if they strive with you to make you join in worship with Me others that of which you have no knowledge, then obey them not, but behave with them in the world kindly.” (Luqman: 15).
In explaining the reason for the verse’s revelation, the scholars of tafsir stated that it was revealed in the case of Sa‘ad ibn Abi Waqas, whose mother ordered him to obey her and disbelieve in Islam. Upon this, Allah revealed the above verse ordering all the believers to be obedient to their parents except in the case that involved disbelief or shirk.4
Third: Yes, Allah has allowed Muslims to eat from the meat of the People of the Book and marry from their womenfolk. The question is: If a Muslim marries such a woman, then how would it be possible for him to live in harmony, peace, and love with her while not congratulating her or her family on their holidays? This type of qiyas (analogical reasoning) is flawed in that one of the major pillars of qiyas is missing, and that is the ‘illah (operative cause).5 The ‘illah in this case is that the Jews and the Christians have a Divine Scripture, which entails that Muslims can eat from their meat and marry from them. However, it is not permissible for anyone to make qiyas on this because the ruling is khass (specific) or muqayyad (restricted) to only these two acts. One of the rules for making an allegorical interpretation (ta’wil) is that khass and muqayyad are not open for additional interpretations.6 Additionally, qiyas can never be as high in authority as the definitive evidences or ijma‘. What this means is that the end result of qiyas must be in conformity with the intentions of the Shari‘a to determine its harmony with the Islamic texts.7 And in the case of congratulating and partaking in the holidays of the non-Muslims, an ijma‘ has been reported on its prohibition by scholars such as Ibn al-Qayyim, hence, rendering this qiyas invalid.
Fourth: al-Qaradawi also cites the verse where Allah states, “When you are greeted with a greeting, greet in return with what is better than it, or (at least) return it equally.” (al-Nisa’: 86). Again, the usage of verses from the Quran for purposes other than what they were intended for in their context is a flawed methodology. This verse is specific in the greeting that is common among Muslims, which is to say salam ‘alaykum or what is similar to it. When mentioning this verse, all the scholars of tafsir mention it in the context of saying salam ‘alaykum, and none of them made it general to include all types of greetings.8
Additionally, the scholars of fiqh, such as Imam Ahmad9, al-Jassas10, al-Nawawi11 and Ibn Qudama12 stated the limitation to which a Muslim can greet a non-Muslim: a) not to initiate the greeting, b) not to say wa rahmat Allah, and c) to confine it to saying only “and upon you.” Furthermore, even if we were allowed to interpret this verse as applying to all types of greetings, then there are other limitations that must be taken into account if we are presented with a greeting that contains kufr connotations. For example, it would be prohibited to return the greeting of a person who greets a Muslim by saying “May the peace of the son of God be upon you”, or “May Jesus, the son of God, be your Savior.” Applying the verse in this scenario according to the methodology that is used by al-Qaradawi and others would necessitate that the Muslim should return the greeting with the same greeting. However, we know that this would be forbidden for a Muslim to do, as it contains phrases of shirk. Likewise, it would be incorrect to use the above verse from the Quran to apply in cases of all types of greetings; ones that contain a neutral meaning or those that contain a religious concept behind it, as is in the case of Christmas, etc.
In the case of the greeting, “Merry Christmas,” this expression is explicitly religious as the etymology of the word Christmas derives from ‘Christ’ and the religious service of mass with its ritual of the Eucharist. To say “Merry Christmas” is to literally utter celebration towards the act of worshiping Jesus.
Fifth: Finally, al-Qaradawi claims that the Prophet ﷺ accepted gifts from non-Muslims including the Christian priest of Egypt, and based on that it is permissible for Muslims to exchange gifts with them on their holidays. Again, it should be clear by now that the methodology of using texts that are ‘amm for specific cases is incorrect. There is no doubt that we are allowed to exchange gifts and food with the non-Muslims on the basis of humanitarian gesture or having good manners. But to use the example of the Prophet ﷺ accepting a gift from a Christian priest to mean that it is permissible for Muslims to accept gifts without any restrictions, besides it containing pork or alcohol, is incorrect. It is similar to saying that it is permissible for a Muslim to give a ‘gift’ that is intended as a bribe to a person of authority, such as a judge, and to justify it with the above hadith. Clearly, it can be said that such a ‘gift’ would be forbidden in this case due to the intention or reasoning behind it. Similarly, the exchanging of gifts during non-Muslims holidays is forbidden.
There is nothing wrong with giving gifts to people that we love and those that we want to show an appreciation for. The Prophet ﷺ encouraged his Ummah to exchange gifts by saying, “Exchange gifts as that will lead to increasing your love for one another.”13 However, the problem arises when such gift giving is connected to a specific occasion or has religious overtones. If Muslims are to give gifts to their loved ones or even Christian neighbors, etc., then it should not be given on such occasions that have any semblance of religious significance and meaning.
Abdullah bin Bayyah/Hamza Yusuf
Bin Bayyah14 in his book, Sina‘at al-Fatwa wa Fiqh al-Aqalliyyat, quotes the exact same proofs and principles as al-Qaraḍawi, but he adds the following commentary:
The Scholars have disagreed upon this issue of congratulating the non-Muslims (on their festivals). In the madhhab of Imam Ahmad there are three opinions: a) it is prohibited, b) it is disliked and c) it is permissible. It is this last opinion (of permissibility) that Sheikh Taqi al-Din Ibn Taymiyyah chose due to its maslaḥah (overall good) and this is the opinion that we choose as well. Therefore, it is permissible to congratulate them (non-Muslims), to console them on their grief, and to visit their sick. Al-Mardawi has quoted all of these narrations in his book, al-Inṣaf. And what is mentioned in some of the other books in regard to Ibn Taymiyyah may not be in agreement with his confirmed opinions.15
Refutation of Bin Bayyah/Hamza Yusuf
Upon further examination and analysis of the statement of Bin Bayyah, I discovered that his statements are inaccurate and misleading in several ways:
The scholars did not differ on this issue at all as there was ijma‘ on the prohibition of congratulating non-Muslims on their holidays. This consensus was reported by Ibn al-Qayyim when he said, “Congratulating the non-Muslims on their rituals that belong only to them is haram by consensus (of the scholars).”16 Therefore, this ijma‘ that was established cannot be broken under any circumstance as is well known among the scholars of fiqh and usul. And for those that claim that ijma‘ was not established on this issue, then the burden of proof lies upon them to establish their statement. Neither Bin Bayyah nor any of the others modern scholars giving fatwa of permissibility have shown anything that would nullify the statement of ijma‘ by Ibn al-Qayyim.
In reality, there are only two opinions in the madhhab of Imam Ahmad, haram and makruh, and not three as Bin Bayyah stated. Additionally, the context of the two opinions in the madhhab was not in regard to congratulating kuffar on their festivals, but rather it was in the context of congratulating them on non-religious happy occasions, as Ibn al-Qayyim mentions. Furthermore, al-Mardawi states, “The second opinion is that it is not prohibited but disliked as reported in the books of Ri‘ayah and al-Hawiyayn in the chapter of jana’iz.”17 Al-Mardawi goes on to quote the example of the Prophet ﷺ visiting the sick Jewish boy in order that he may accept Islam. Thus, it can be said without a doubt that the context of makruh was not in regards to congratulating non-Muslims on their festivals and holidays but with regard to visiting them when are sick or general greetings on non-religious occasions.
With regard to Ibn Taymiyyah choosing the opinion of permissibility in congratulating non-Muslims on their festivals, this is misleading and also incorrect as al-Mardawi states the context in which Ibn Taymiyyah chose this ‘permissibility’ by saying: “It (visiting their sick) is permissible for a clear maslahah (overall good) such as the hope that they will accept Islam. This opinion was preferred by Ibn Taymiyyah.”18 Furthermore, how can it be possible for Ibn Taymiyyah to choose the opinion of permissibility when he clearly and unequivocally is of the opinion that congratulating and partaking in these festivals, regardless of it being religious or non-religious, is completely forbidden?19 Additionally, for Bin Bayyah to state that Ibn Taymiyyah’s ‘confirmed’ opinion is that of permissibility is extremely misleading, because his ‘confirmed’ opinion is what is relayed by him in his famous masterpiece, Iqtida’ al-Sirat al-Mustaqim fi Mukhalafati Ashab al-Jaḥim, which is completely and solely dedicated to the issue of congratulating and partaking in the festivals of non-Muslims.
Among those that also allowed congratulating non-Muslims on their festivals is Suhaib Webb. On December 26, 2012 he posted on his personal Facebook page what can be considered a justification for greeting non-Muslims on Christmas and New Year’s. He states:
The European Fatwa Council; made up of 20 of the world’s greatest Muslim Jurists, stated that it is permissible to greet people on these days (exchange gifts even) as long as it does not involve approving any creedal differences between us, or open evil (drinking and so on). In other words, a simple happy holidays is not a sin or going to take that person out of Islam. It is reported with authentic chains that Ali (ra) celebrated the Persian New Year, even eating ice cream with Imam Abu Hanifa’s relative. Many of the fatwa quoted by sincere folks are rooted in an age of empire and war (the crusades) or a social reality that does not fit ours in the West. Most importantly, a person should ask those who use words like “haram” “kufur” “Halal” and “encouraged” about their religious training. Yelling and over blown emotionalism does not equal training and scholarship. Allah knows best. (Webb, 2012).
Refutation of Suhaib Webb
As for the claim that it was reported with an ‘authentic chain’ that ‘Ali celebrated the Persian New Year’s by eating ice cream with the relatives of Imam Abu Hanifah, then this is inaccurate. Although Webb does not mention the source of this story (a common practice, unfortunately, of ‘intellectuals’), I did research and found it in the book Siyar A‘lam al-Nubala’, by Imam al-Dhahabi.20 Upon further examination of the story, the scholars found a defect in the chain of narration which renders this story to be weak and not ‘authentic’ as Webb alleges. The chain contains Isma‘il ibn Hammad ibn Nu‘man ibn Thabit, the grandson of Imam Abu Hanifah, whom the scholars of hadith have declared to be ‘weak’ and ‘someone who cannot be trusted’ due to his statements and positions on the creation of the Quran.21 There are other defects in the chain, but suffice it to say that based on this analysis of one of the narrators, it can be concluded, at the very least, that this story is not ‘authentic’ as Webb inaccurately asserts.
Effects on Muslims
When some Muslims read or hear of these fatawa that permit them to congratulate non-Muslims in their holidays, a sense of calm and ease overcome them. They no longer have to think twice about the issue and can congratulate and greet their non-Muslim friends, co-workers, classmates, or neighbors with a huge smile and full confidence. They feel that Islam is a religion of peace and tolerance that ‘accepts’ the diversity that is present among humankind. They feel that it is perfectly acceptable in Islam to take and follow a ‘second opinion’ on this matter, especially if it brings them comfort and ease.
In conducting a survey among Muslims in the US, I found that 10% of respondents said that when seeking this opinion of permissibility, they follow it because: a) it is easy and comforting and because b) they want to follow the ‘easy’ path in Islam no matter what.
When asked whether congratulating non-Muslims is a form of ‘kindness’ and ‘respect’, 34% of respondents said yes.
When some Muslims feel the favors and tolerance of non-Muslims towards them, they feel that they must be as courteous and respectful to them as they are. After all, this is what the teachings of Islam are: To be kind to those who are kind to you and be patient with those who are rude to you (al-Baqarah: 109, Ᾱl ‘Imran: 186, Taha: 130, & al-Ahzab: 48). So they see that to congratulate non-Muslims on their holidays is the least amount of respect they can show towards them. When asked whether they feel that being ‘kind’ and ‘respectful’ means they should congratulate non-Muslims on their holidays, 34% of respondents said yes.
As for the Muslim who is suffering from mistreatment, discrimination, and rudeness from non-Muslims, he sees the holidays as a means to show them the true akhlaq (manners) of a Muslim in order to exhibit in himself the mannerism of the Prophet ﷺ when he was mistreated by the polytheists of Makkah. He also hopes that they will have a more positive attitude towards Islam, eventually leading them to accept Islam as their religion. When asked whether they use the religious holidays as a form of da‘wah (proselytizing), 16% replied, “Yes, I congratulate and partake in the holidays with them to show the beauty and tolerance of Islam.”
Many contemporary scholars and Islamic leaders have voiced their concern about Muslims losing their Islamic identity as a result of them participating in the celebrations of non-Muslims. When conducting the survey, I wanted to confirm whether or not those fears were legitimate and real. I asked respondents, whether or not they believe that the future Muslim generations in the US will lose their Islamic identity (eventually) by partaking in the non-Muslim religious holidays: 43% said yes while another 27% said maybe.
If we were to put aside all the juristic arguments aside and just ponder over this for a moment, we will realize the following:
- The negative effects that are brought about by the fatawa of permissibility outweigh their supposed and potential positive effects.
- There has been no documented evidence or sociological data that Muslims as minorities face a backlash or negative treatment brought about simply due to them abstaining from congratulating and/or participating in the holidays of non-Muslims.
- The fatawa of permissibility go against the consensus of the classical scholars.
- The effectiveness of Islamic da‘wah that is preached and advocated by those who permit the congratulating of non-Muslims in their religious festivals is actually obtained by those that abstain from congratulating and/or partaking in their holidays in the sense that it generates potential curiosity, conversations, and an opportunity for an extended religious dialogue.
- The prohibition of congratulation safeguards the creed and belief of Muslims from dilution and/or contamination with external beliefs of kufr or shirk.
Point number five is especially critical given the fact that some Muslims are raised in a household environment that condones the practice of congratulating and even celebrating the holidays of non-Muslims. To them, celebrating Christmas by receiving and giving gifts to their non-Muslim friends and family, and even among themselves, is innocent and full of fun.
When asked whether Eid was more or less fun than Christmas, about 10% of respondents said Christmas was more fun than Eid with another 10% saying it was the same. Some of the respondents commented, “Children think Christmas is more fun,” while another respondent noted, “We failed to make Eid more fun.” It is statements such as these that confirm what many of us have personally overheard children telling their parents, e.g., “We love celebrating Christmas because it is more fun than Eid.”
Additionally, when such holidays arrive, schools hold a celebration and gift-giving ceremonies of their own that tend to glamorize such festivals and make them appear more attractive to children. By following fatawa of permissibility, the Muslim community struggles with the questions of what to do and how to react when their children go to school and partake in these ceremonies. Some choose not to send their children to school for that day but others worry that taking their kids out of school somehow sacrifices their education.
The reality is, however, that this sacrifice brings about several benefits for their children: a) there is no real education or learning taking place during these days, b) they instill in their children the importance of a distinct Muslim identity, c) they save their children from partaking in the ceremonies that clearly involve immoral and despicable acts, d) they spend quality time with their children since they rarely see each other except on the weekends, and most importantly d) they will be fulfilling their responsibility as shepherds22 who protect and guard their flock from any adulteration and contamination in regard to their Islamic `aqidah (creed).
In the end, a great deal is at stake. Some today, even among supposed Muslim “leaders” in the West, prefer not to delve into these issues as they view the entire conversation as “of little relevance,” as somehow beneath them or not worthy of serious concern. Contrast this with the view of scholars throughout history who unanimously recognized that a seemingly small thing like a greeting could entail kufr and shirk. We would do well to remember the words of the Prophet ﷺ:
“A man utters a word pleasing to Allah without considering it of any significance for which Allah exalts his ranks (in Jannah); another one speaks a word displeasing to Allah without considering it of any importance, and for this reason he will sink down into Hell.” (Sahih al-Bukhari)
About the Author: Shaykh Dr. Ali Ahmed has pursued knowledge from India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, UAE, Mauritania, and Morocco. He has obtained two Bachelors degrees (in Islamic Studies and in Biochemistry), a Masters in Fiqh and Usul al-Fiqh, and is currently pursuing his PhD in Islamic Judiciary. He also has fifteen years of experience as an imam and youth director in California, USA.
1. Even though al-Qaradawi does not live in the US or the Western world, he is considered to be a mufti for the Muslims living there. In fact he is the current presiding Chairman of the European Council for Fatwa and Research (ECFR) based in Ireland. Furthermore, he is one of the most influential scholars of our time whose influence is not confined to the Islamic world, as his fatawa plays a role in shaping the identity of some Muslims in the West (Polka, 2013, p. 49).↩
2. Al-Bukhari, Sahih al-Bukhari, hadith no. 7257, vol. 9, 88; Muslim, Sahih Muslim, hadith no. 1840, vol. 3, 1469.↩
3. Al-Bukhari, Sahih al-Bukhari, hadith no. 2620, vol. 3, 164.↩
4. Isma‘il ibn ‘Umar ibn Kathir, Tafsir al-Quran al-‘Adhim, (Bayrut: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 1st ed., 1419H ), vol. 6, 239; Muhammad ibn Jarir Al-Ùabari, Jami‘ al-Bayan fi ta’wil al-Quran, (Bayrut: Mu’assat al-Risalah), vol. 20, 12; Ahmad Ibn ‘Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani, Fath al-Bari Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, (Bayrut: Dar al-Ma‘rifah, 1379H), vol. 10, 400.↩
5. Mohammad Hashim Kamali, Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence, (Kuala Lumpur: Ilmiah Publishers, 3rd ed., 2000), 200.↩
6. Ibid., 89.↩
7. Ibid., 199↩
8. Ibn Kathir, Tafsir al-Quran al-‘Adhim, vol. 2, 325-326; Al-Tabari, Jami‘ al-Bayan…, vol. 8, 87-90; Fakhr al-Din Al-Razi, Mafatih al-Ghayb, (Bayrut: Dar Ihya’ al-Turath al-‘Arabi, 3rd ed., 1420H), vol. 10, 161-163; Muhammad Tahir ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Ashur, Al-Tahrir wa al-Tanwir, (Tunisia: Al-Dar al-Tunisiyyah, 1984), vol. 5, 145.↩
9. Ibn al-Qayyim, Ahkam Ahl al-Dhimmah, vol. 152-157; Al-Khallil, Abu Bakr Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Harun ibn Yazid al-Baghdadi, Ahkam Ahl al-Milal, (Bayrut: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, 2nd ed., 2003), 387-391.↩
10. Ahmad ibn ‘Ali Abu Bakr al-Razi Al-Jassas, Ahkam al-Qur’an, (Bayrut: Dar Ihya’ al-Turath al-‘Arabi, 1405H), vol. 3, 571.↩
11. Abu Zakariyya Yahya ibn Sharaf al-Dimashqi Al-Nawawi, Al-Minhaj Sharh Sahih Muslim, (Bayrut: Dar Ihya’ al-Turath al-‘Arabi, 2nd ed., 1392H), hadith 2163, vol. 14, 144-145.↩
12. Abu Muhammad ‘Abdullah ibn Ahmad ibn Muammad ibn Qudamah, Al-Mughni, (Cairo: Maktabat al-Qahirah, 1968), vol. 9, 363.↩
13. Muhammad ibn Isma‘il ibn Ibrahim ibn al-Mughrah Al-Bukhari, Al-Adab al-Mufrad, (Bayrut: Dar al-Basha’ir al-Islamiyyah, 3rd ed., 1989), Hadith no. 240, vol. 1, 221.↩
14. In my research, I could not find any literature pertaining to congratulating and partaking in the religious festivals of non-Muslims in the US that can be authentically associated to Hamza Yusuf. However, given the fact that Hamza Yusuf is the close student of Bin Bayyah, it can cautiously be concluded that the views and fatawa given by Bin Bayyah are also the views and opinions of Hamza Yusuf, unless there is some indication otherwise.↩
15. Bin Bayyah, Ṣina‘at al-Fatwa wa Fiqh al-Aqalliyyat, 342.↩
16. Ibn al-Qayyim, Aḥkam Ahl al-Dhimmah, vol. 1, 162.↩
17. ‘Ala’ al-Din ‘Ali ibn Sulayman Al-Mardawi, al-Insaf fi Ma‘rifat al-Rajih min al-Khilaf, (Bayrut: Dar Ihya’ al-Turath al-‘Arabi, 2nd Edn., n.d.), vol. 4, 234.↩
18. Ibid, vol. 4, 234.↩
19. Ibn Taymiyyah, Iqtida’ al-Sirat al-Mustaqim…, 210-213; Ibn al-Qayyim, Ahkam Ahl al-Dhimmah, vol. 1, 162.↩
20. Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn ‘Uthman Al-Dhahabi, Siyar A‘lam al-Nubali’, (Cairo: Dar al-Hadith, 1st Edn., 2006), vol. 6, 395.↩
21. See Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn ‘Uthman Al-Dhahabi, Mizan al-I‘tidal, (Bayrut: Dar al-Ma‘rifah, 1st Edn., 1963), vol. 1, 226; Ahmad Ibn ‘Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani, Tahdhib al-Tahdhib, (India: Dairat al-Ma‘arif al-Nidhamiyyah, 1st Edn., 1326H), vol. 1, 290; Ahmad Ibn ‘Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani,, Lisan al-Mizan, (India: Dairat al-Ma‘arif al-Nidhamiyyah, 2nd Edn., 1971), vol. 1, 398-399.↩
22. This idea of being a shepherd is taken from a ḥadith of the Prophet that states: “All of you are shepherds and each of you is responsible for his flock. An Imam is a shepherd and he is responsible for those in his care. A man is a shepherd in respect of his family and is responsible for those in his care. The woman is a shepherd in respect of her husband’s house and is responsible for those in her care. The servant is a shepherd in respect of his master’s property and is responsible for what is in his care. All of you are shepherds and each of you is responsible for his flock.” (al-Bukhari, vol. 5: 2 & Muslim, Sahih Muslim, vol. 3, ed. n.d.: 1459).↩