Interfaith: Modern Misinterpretation and Abuse of the Madīnah Charter

All praise is for Allāh Ta’ālā, Who has blessed us with an illustrious chain of pious and brilliant scholars, who form the backbone of our tradition. Mawlānā Muḥammad Idrīs Kāndehlawī raḥimahullāh had addressed the flawed ideologies of his time, refuting the concept of using the blessed Sīrah to score political points. He paved the path for us to follow; to protect the pristine Sīrah and stand as servants of Islām; to protect it and allow for it to be practiced properly until the end of time.

He discussed the Madīnah Charter in his celebrated Sīrat-ul-Muṣṭafā and responded to the weak-minded people who fell into and were chanting slogans that, in essence, would have led to serious problems like blasphemy and apostasy.

History repeats itself. This holds true in the case before us in the newfound Abrahamic Religion, which is being trumpeted by weak minded individuals and scholars who suffer from an inferiority complex. The advocates of Interfaith and the Abrahamic Religion are working ferociously, attempting to set up their newfound falsity, looking to pass their time in their vile attempt to scuttle the truth of Islām.

The Madīnah Charter has nothing to do with Interfaith. Period.

Despite this glaring reality, we find scholars in various parts of the world, sounding the Interfaith call, and using the blessed Sīrah of Rasūlullāh ṣallallāhu alayhi wa sallam as their basis! To Allāh do we belong and to Him is our return.

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There are serious questions that arise from a deceitful attack on the entire structure of Islām and the fabric of a Muslim society. What benefit does a Muslim gain from subverting the Sīrah? Is he not guilty of misrepresenting the greatest of the Anbiyā’ ‘alayhim as-salām? What heart does a Muslim scholar have, and what face will he have to show the Muslim Ummah when the truth is laid bare?

What follows are the words of Mawlānā Muḥammad Idrīs Kāndehlawī raḥimahullāh. Hopefully they will help us to gain an understanding of the treaty that Rasūlullāh ṣallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam had made with the Jews of Madīnah.

Quote (Sīrat-ul-Muṣṭafā):

The Madīnah Charter

The bulk of the population of Madīnah was made up of the ‘Aws and Khazraj tribes. However, over time, a significant number of Jews also settled in Madīnah. They had a number of Madrasahs and educational institutes in Khaybar and Madīnah. They also had a few fortresses in Khaybar. They were referred to as Ahl ul-Kitāb (people of the scripture). Compared to the polytheists, they enjoyed educational superiority and distinction in the land of Ḥijāz. On the basis of their celestial scriptures, they were well conscious of the conditions and attributes of the final messenger.

Allāh Ta‘ālā says: “They recognise him just as they recognise their (own) sons.” However, they were not people of sound disposition. Jealousy, pride, obstinacy and defiance were their second nature.

Allāh Ta‘ālā says: “And they (the Jews) refuted it (the āyāt) wrongfully and arrogantly even though their hearts were convinced (of the truth).”

Even whilst Rasūlullāh ṣallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam was in Makkah, the Jews would persistently incite the Makkan Quraysh against Rasūlullāh ṣallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam. The Jews would often persuade the Quraysh to ask Rasūlullāh ṣallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam about certain issues like the Aṣḥāb al-Kahf, the Rūh (soul), Zul-Qarnain etc. When Rasūlullāh ṣallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam migrated to Madīnah, this jealousy and defiance flared even further. In due course they came to grips with the fact that the days of their educational and academic superiority had drawn to a close, and the deviants from amongst them trailed their predecessors in flouting the truth. They elected to adhere to the demeanour of the ‘people of Saturday’ (Aṣḥāb al-Sabt) and the conduct of those who ‘assassinated the Prophets.’

RELATED: The Disgraceful Depiction of Prophets in Judaism

The pious and those of sound disposition from amongst the Rabbis and the learned divulged the prophecies of the final messenger to their people and these selected few embraced Islām. However, most of them preferred the route of defiance. Jealousy and rebelliousness proved to be their downfall in this path of righteousness.

In view of their jealousy and defiance and in order to contain their civil strife, sedition and depravity, Rasūlullāh ṣallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam decided to draw up a written treaty with them. The idea behind this treaty was to at least ensure that their opposition and defiance does not intensify any further and so that the Muslims may be safe from their strife and depravity. The Noble Qur’ān is replete with the evils and rabble-rousing of the Jews. So, in order to contain this sedition and mischief from swelling any further, Rasūlullāh ṣallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam formed a treaty with the local Jews of Madīnah.

Five months[1] after his migration to Madīnah, Rasūlullāh ṣallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam established a written treaty with the Jews of Madīnah in which he promised to allow them to retain their Dīn, wealth and assets subject to certain conditions. These will be discussed shortly.

For comprehensive details see Sīrat Ibn Hishām, volume 1, page 178, and Al-Bidāyah Wan-Nihāyah, volume 3, page 224.

A Summary of the Treaty

Treaty from Muḥammad, the unlettered Prophet, between the Muslims of the Quraysh and Muslims of Madīnah and the Jews who wish to ally themselves with the Muslims – that every affiliate of the treaty will, whilst retaining his own faith, be bound by the following conditions:

(1) Qiṣāṣ – and the ancient system of blood money – will be retained with justice and integrity.

(2) With fairness, each member will be obliged to pay the ransom of its own tribe. In other words, if a prisoner (of war) is to be released by the payment of ransom, the obligation of payment rests upon the tribe from which the prisoner hails.

(3) All members will remain committed against tyranny, transgression, hostility and civil strife. There will be no exceptions to this rule – even if the offender is the son (of one of the leaders).

(4) No Muslim will be permitted to execute another Muslim in retaliation of the murder of a disbeliever. Furthermore, no disbeliever will be assisted against a Muslim.

(5) The lowest ranking Muslim will enjoy the same right to sanctuary and refuge as that of the highest-ranking Muslim.

(6) The safety of Jews living under the Muslims will be the responsibility of the Muslims. They will not be harassed or tyrannised and their enemies will not be assisted against them.

(7) A polytheist or disbeliever will not have the right against Muslims, to offer asylum to the lives and wealth of the Quraysh, nor will he have the right to interfere between the Muslims and the Quraysh.

(8) In times of war, the Jews will be obliged to support the Muslims with their wealth and lives. They will not be permitted to assist the enemy against the Muslims.

(9) If an enemy of Rasūlullāh ṣallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam attacks Madīnah, the Jews will be duty-bound to assist Rasūlullāh ṣallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

(10) From the tribes who are affiliated to this treaty, none will have the right to withdraw from the obligations of this treaty without the permission of Rasūlullāh ṣallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

(11) Assistance or asylum to a trouble-monger will not be permitted. He who assists or offers asylum to a Bid‘atī i.e., an innovator, attracts the wrath and curse of Allāh. None of his good actions will be accepted – right until Qiyāmah.

(12) If the Muslims enter into a peace treaty with anyone, the Jews will also be obliged to observe the conditions of this treaty.

(13) He who murders a Muslim, and there is evidence to support this, will be executed in Qiṣāṣ – except if the guardian agrees to accept blood money etc.

(14) In cases of dispute, or mutual disagreement, matters will be referred to Allāh and His Rasūl ṣallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam.[2]

RELATED: The Core Pattern of Modern Muslim Deviance

The tribes[3] with which Rasūlullāh ṣallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam concluded this treaty included three major tribes of the Jews who lived in and around Madīnah. These three tribes were Banū Qaynuqā’, Banū Naḍīr and Banū Qurayzah. Since these three tribes declined to comply with Rasūlullāh ṣallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam, he entered into this treaty with them to staunch the proliferation of their evil and mischief. However, all three tribes, one after the other, violated the terms of the treaty and took extensive part in their hostility and conspiracy against the Muslims. They were thus punished for their misdeeds as mentioned in the chapter dealing with military expeditions.

Abū ‘Ubayd writes in Kitāb-ul-Amwāl:

“This treaty was ratified before the injunction of jizyah (head tax levied on non-Muslims living under Muslim rule). Islām was still vulnerable and weak at that moment in time. Initially, the ruling was that if the Jews join the Muslims in any military expedition, they are to be given a percentage of the booty. This is why one of the conditions of this treaty was that the Jews will be obliged to share the burden of the expenditure incurred in these campaigns.”

Note: The text of the treaty clearly indicates that this treaty between the Muslims and the Jews was formulated in such a manner that the Muslims will be dominant, and the Jews will be subordinate to them whilst Rasūlullāh ṣallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam will be the undisputed ruler between them. In cases of dispute, all matters will be referred to Rasūlullāh ṣallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam and his decision will be final.

This treaty was similar to the agreement between the Muslims and Dhimmīs (non-Muslims living under Muslim rule), but it is not exactly the same because this treaty was enacted in the very early days of Islām’s supremacy and leadership. The era of Islām’s supremacy commenced at the treaty of Hudaybiyyah and at the conquest of Makkah. After failing to locate any verification for their views from the Qur’ān and Sunnah, some Muslims who fancy joining or supporting the Congress Party[4] try to use this treaty to justify their political allegiance. This is grossly incorrect because every article in this treaty – from beginning to end[5] – verifies that the rule of Islām will remain dominant, and that the non-Muslims will remain subjugated under the Muslims. This condition is explicitly mentioned in al-Siyar al-Kabīr etc. This is a new-fangled fabrication of those who advocate such ostensible ‘unity’ between Muslims and Hindus, and such a sham has no basis in Dīn whatsoever.

RELATED: Sell-Out “Scholars” Using Sialkot Incident in Pakistan for Reform Agenda

Notes

[1] The details of this treaty are mentioned in Sīrat Ibn Hishām and Al-Bidāyah Wan-Nihāyah but no dates are mentioned in these books. This timeframe of five months from the Hijrah is extracted from Tārīkh-ul-Khamīs, volume 1, page 39.

[2] Al-Bidāyah Wan-Nihāyah, volume 3, page 224

[3] Ibn Isḥāq says:

Rasūlullāh ṣallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam invited the Jews (to Islām) when he set foot in Madīnah but (most of them) declined to comply with him. So, he entered into a treaty with them. They made up three tribes; Banū Qaynuqâ’, Banū Naḍīr and Banū Qurayzah. However, these tribes, one after the other, violated the conditions of the treaty.

[4] A somewhat non-religious political party in India that ruled India for most of its democratic years after gaining independence from Britain in 1947; and most Muslims on the sub-continent lend their support to this party more for political expedience than anything else.

[5] See Rawḍul-Unuf, volume 2, page 17.

End quote from Sīrat-ul-Muṣṭafā.

Signing accords and charters today to subvert Islām, and misusing the Sīrah as a basis to do so, does not take anything away from Islām. It only reflects and highlights the sell-out nature of those who would do such a thing.

What kind of loyalty is this to Allāh Ta’ālā and His Rasūl ṣallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam?

Follow Mufti Abdullah on Twitter: @MuftiAMoolla

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Saad

Insightful